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The History of Mindfulness: A Comprehensive Guide to Cultivating Inner Calm and Improving Mental Well-being

Stephanie Hsu

Nowadays, many of us around the world recognize mindfulness as a powerful skill that can elevate the quality of our lives. From its origins in early religions and cultures to its evolution over time, mindfulness has become widely acknowledged for its positive impact on mental health and well-being

CEOs and high-ranking executives use mindfulness to improve their performance. Celebrities and athletes swear by mindful meditation's ability to calm and focus the mind. In fact, Muse’s 2022 Brain Health report showcased that Americans with a higher self-perceived brain health score take mindful breaks and practice meditation exercises daily during the workday. Mindfulness programs have been adopted in schools, prisons, veteran centers, and other diverse settings.

Since it gained mainstream popularity in the west beginning in the 1960s, mindfulness has been extensively researched for its effectiveness as a clinical tool for mental health. Today, health care providers regularly encourage mindfulness practices, which are used by millions worldwide.

But what exactly is mindfulness? Where did mindfulness come from, and how has it evolved over time?

Let’s dive in.

History of Mindfulness

What Is Mindfulness As a Practice?

You’d think it would be easy to define a term like mindfulness, but experts actually vary in how they approach it. Mindfulness can be viewed in three ways: as a character trait, a state of being, and a practice or collection of tools.

  1. As a trait, mindfulness can be viewed as a long-term part of someone’s character and way of being.
  2. As a state of being, mindfulness can be viewed as the outcome of a set of practices that cultivate present moment awareness.
  3. Finally, as a practice, mindfulness can be considered a set of tools that cultivate an attitude of mindfulness alongside self-awareness that facilitates self-empowerment.

Ultimately, all perspectives are correct. Mindfulness can be honed through a collection of mindfulness techniques and also represents a state of mind.

At Muse, we define mindfulness as the nonjudgmental observation and acceptance of the sensations, thoughts, and emotions experienced in the present moment.

What Are the Benefits of Practicing Mindfulness?

People practice mindfulness for different reasons. Some use it to calm feelings of overwhelm or to reduce the chaos of a busy mind, while others seek to improve their emotional and mental health.

Research has found mindfulness exercises can be effective in:

Furthermore, scientific research suggests that mindfulness practices may positively influence the immune system and limit chronic inflammation.  [6]

How Does Mindfulness Differ From Meditation?

Although often used interchangeably, meditation and mindfulness are not the same.

Meditation represents a diverse collection of practices that can cultivate mindfulness or other attitudes such as gratitude, compassion, calm, and present-moment awareness. 

Mindfulness, on the other hand, is a state of mind and skill that can be honed through various techniques, including meditation practices.

Mindfulness can also take the form of:

  • Body scans: During a body scan, practitioners consciously observe the different physical sensations within their body, directing their attention to the present moment.
  • Mindfulness throughout the day: Mindfulness expert Thich Nhat Hahn advocated for incorporating mindfulness into everyday activities, such as washing dishes, eating, or moving mindfully. Practicing mindfulness throughout the day involves being fully present in each moment.
  • Breath-focused meditation: By sitting and focusing on the sound and sensation of their breath as they inhale and exhale, practitioners engage in breath-focused meditation. This type of meditation cultivates focused attention and mindfulness.
  • Zen meditation: Zen meditation, also known as open monitoring meditation, involves observing all sensations and thoughts as they arise, without fixating on any specific focal point. The goal is to maintain a neutral mental space and let go of attachments.
  • Yoga asanas: Mindfulness can be practiced through yoga asanas or poses. As practitioners hold an asana, they pay attention to their thoughts, emotions, and bodily sensations, accepting them and then letting them go.

History of Mindfulness

The Evolution and History of Mindfulness

Where did mindfulness originate? The roots of mindfulness can be traced back to early religions and cultures. Mindfulness, as widely used today, finds its origins predominantly in early Hinduism and Buddhism.

Early Buddhism, Hinduism, Zazen, and Vipassanā

The earliest known record of mindfulness dates back thousands of years to a collection of Vedic texts and practices that would later be grouped together under Hinduism. The earliest Vedic traditions began over 4,000 years ago in Indus Valley, now located in modern-day Pakistan.

The word mindfulness itself can be traced back to the Pali word, sati. In the Buddhist tradition, sati can be interpreted as awareness, alertness, and attention, but specifically means “moment to moment awareness of events” combined with “remembering to be aware of something.” Sati also refers to Vipassanā, which is a state of insight encouraged through meditation.

In early Buddhist teachings, sati is one of the seven factors of enlightenment, and refers to a “correct” mindfulness necessary for achieving enlightenment. In this sense, mindfulness in early Buddhism is not about the thoughts we experience, but about understanding the nature of thought and desire as it arises within us to prompt suffering.

Zazen, also known as zen meditation, is another practice which contributed to the development of mindfulness. It involves open monitoring of your moment to moment experience, without a specific focal point of concentration. It is generally considered more difficult than focused attention meditation, which also cultivates mindfulness.

Thich Nhat Hanh

Aside from the Dalai Lama, Thich Nhat Hahn is perhaps the world’s most well known Buddhist. Thich Nhat Hanh rose to prominence around the world in the 1960s as a vocal Buddhist leader and activist. He had been exiled from Vietnam, and gained popularity as a speaker and activist opposing the Vietnam war. In the 1970s, his focus shifted to spreading awareness of meditation and mindfulness. He published a book titled the Miracle of Mindfulness, alongside over 100 other books. His contributions played a major role in the widespread popularity of mindfulness today.

The Insight Meditation Center

The Insight Meditation Society (IMs) was established in 1975 by Joseph Goldstein, Sharon Salzberg, and Jack Kornfield. It is rooted in Theravada Buddhist tradition, and played an essential role in providing access for westerners to learn about mindfulness and meditation. The first Insight Meditation Center (IMC) opened in 1976, and counted Jon Kabat-Zinn as one of its first students.

Jon Kabat-Zinn and Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction

Known as the father of modern mindfulness, Jon Kabat-Zinn played perhaps the most significant role in bringing the practice of mindfulness to where it stands today. Jon Kabat-Zinn is a professor emeritus of medicine, having received his PhD in molecular biology from MIT. Zinn was introduced to meditation by a Zen missionary who came to speak at MIT. Afterwards, he went on to study meditation with masters including Thich Nhat Hanh and Seungsahn. He studied and eventually began teaching mindfulness at the Insight Meditation Society.

Jon Kabat Zinn is perhaps best known for his creation of the mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program. Zinn wanted to make the benefits of mindfulness more accessible for a western audience, so he adapted them with a less spiritual emphasis than traditional buddhist practice for clinical settings and personal use. 

His programs, typically around eight weeks, sought to introduce participants to mindfulness in ways they could incorporate in their daily routines. He founded his first stress reduction clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. Later, his programs were adapted into the forms of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based pain management.

Mindfulness Today

Today, mindfulness is not limited to religious or spiritual contexts but has become a secular practice available to people of all backgrounds. Its applications range from stress reduction and emotional regulation to improved focus and self-awareness. 

Mindfulness is not confined to formal meditation practices alone. It can be integrated into everyday activities such as eating, walking, and even working. By intentionally bringing mindful awareness to the present moment, we can cultivate a deeper sense of presence and reduce stress.

If you’re looking for support as you begin your journey with mindfulness, look no further. With Muse you can access over 500+ guided meditations featuring stress reduction, confidence, performance, and more, you’re sure to find a meditation to help you experience the transformative potential of mindfulness.

History of Mindfulness


  1. Explore a meta-analysis of mindfulness-based stress reduction studies on anxiety, depression, distress, and more HERE >>
  2. Read a systematic review of treatments to reduce mind-wandering and rumination HERE >>
  3. Read a systematic review of mindfulness approaches effect on performance HERE >>
  4. Explore a systematic review of state mindfulness and psychological health HERE >>
  5. Explore a meta-analysis of studies on the effect of mindfulness on biological markers of stress HERE >>
  6. Read a systematic review of the effects of mindfulness on the immune system HERE >>

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